Anemia results from a decreased number of red blood cells (RBCs) or a decreased quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. It is the most common blood disorder.
Classification of anemia can be made by studying the morphology of RBCs, the underlying etiology, and the clinical symptoms. Based on the underlying etiology, anemia can be classified into two main types: anemia caused by the inadequate production of RBCs, and anemia caused by the excessive loss of RBCs (Table).1
Figure. Megakaryocyte proliferation in myelofibrosis.
Reproduced from Crowley LV. Essentials of human disease. Sudbury, MA, USA. Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2011. pp. 226-7 © 2011 Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
One of the reasons for the inadequate production of RBCs is the impaired functioning of the bone marrow. Different types of anemia belong to this class and include:
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